Posted by admin at 13 June 2014

Category: Diet, Exercise

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One of the leading problems effecting today’s youth is that of youth obesity. One of the most vital parenting suggestions that might ultimately save a youngster’s life is to take care of the issue early and yet with terrific level of sensitivity. The truth is that handling this fragile parenting concern early might make to save a youngster from taking care of weight problems and other related illnesses in later life.

For many years, the presence of obesity in children has significantly increased. Many specialists associate the rise to over exposure to video games, tv and computers. Others believe that the increasing problem stems from inadequate eating habits and still others believe it may be a bit of both.

Among other issues, overweight children are at higher threat for developing diabetes and heart related health problems. Health experts are commonly fretted that kids who battle with weight early in life may deal with excessive weight later on in their adult years, which might have a really unfavorable influence on their wellness.

A youngster who is obese or has recently been detected with weight problems, need to not be singled out from the family as being the only one having to make a change in their way of life. This is one of the most important parenting methods to make use of when dealing with youth obesity and is likewise one that will significantly impact a youngster’s confidence. If parenting isn’t done correctly in this circumstance, the youngster may permanently feel inferior or begin to identify themselves by just how much they weigh, which is an unhealthy possibility. It is essential that the whole family sign up with together and take part in healthier meals, less tv time and enhanced levels of activity, consisting of walking.

Amongst the best parenting remedies made use of to fight excessive weight is preparing more fruits, veggies and less foods that are high in fat. Positive parenting techniques will include having healthy treats available for your family and encouraging them over processed food. Furthermore, set a schedule for the family to take a brisk walk or invest a long time doing some kind of physical activity, consisting of a video game of basketball, softball, volley ball, etc. Anything that will certainly get your kid up and moving instead of investing all of his/her time in front of the tv or computer game will be to their advantage and will certainly provide to the positive effect of good parenting. And lastly, be vocal throughout your child’s medical visits. This includes asking the physician questions about any issues that you might have, as well as taking his/her advice when it concerns the health of your kid.

Posted by admin at 1 April 2014

Category: Diet, Exercise

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Lots of people believe that the reason for childhood obesity is due to over eating and laziness and to a degree they are right however the major cause of childhood obesity are two factors. The child’s DNA and their moms and dads. If individuals in the kid’s household have actually been struggling with weight gain for many of their life then the genes because child will make them more susceptible to follow the very same pattern, however that can be prevented by healthy eating and workout which is where the parents been available in. Children mimic their parents habits so if the moms and dads were to eat healthily and live active way of livings the kid is sure to follow but in this day and age that is not the case and due to the fact that more grownups are dropping the road of weight problems more kids are following them and eventually suffering at the same hand of fate as their moms and dads although it can quickly be avoided!

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Source: Flickr

Moms and dads have the most affect on their youngster’s life, they have the power to show the youngster that over eating and that lack of workout is not appropriate in a young person’s life and this is the cause of excessive weight troubles later on in life. Obesity has some distressing side impacts and day to day life can be extremely unpleasant and simple jobs such as climbing up stairs, showering and other general things take even more time and more effort because of the additional weight. This is even worse for a child, they need to be active and enjoy!

The causes of childhood obesity are not so severe that excessive weight can be avoided! If you we instruct our kids the best ways to live an active and healthy lifestyle there is no reason why they must become overweight even if they’re family teem with overweight individuals! Excessive weight is a domino effect illness it is triggered by a number of things over consuming being the man one and the impacts are terrible which challenging medical problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure and coronary cardiovascular disease! Childhood obesity can be prevented so lets try and do that, lets avoid it and help our youngsters lead happy healthy lives without any health issues or emotional obstacles!

Posted by admin at 8 March 2014

Category: Diet, Exercise

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As the government ends up being more knowledgeable about the problem of childhood weight problems, schools in the UK are now planning to weigh and measure all youngsters at the ages of 4-5, when they begin primary school and once more at 10-11, when they will leave for secondary education. This is something which is already being accomplished in the United States, however how efficient is it?

There are arguments that kids will be stigmatised which this will enhance bullying, as well as causing an enhanced variety of children dealing with consuming disorders in the future. In addition, lots of people feel that parents must be able to tell that their youngster is overweight and that the cash might be put to better use by doing something to help change the situation.

As a parent, what can you do to help your kids keep their weight under control?

It is necessary to be aware of children’s feelings– if they are being bullied at school, parents should be sure they aren’t feeling “got at” at home by unpleasant moms and dads, which will only increase sensations of isolation and failure.

Parents can set an example by providing healthy meals and not consuming junk food themselves, however it is essential to enable some deals with, as being over stringent is most likely to trigger rubbing and can be counterproductive. If the whole family find out about healthy eating and attempt cooking brand-new healthy dishes together, kids won’t feel they are being singled out.

It is likewise vital not to focus too much on food. Although it is an important part of life and can’t be stayed clear of, it must not be made the main topic of conversation in the household. If children are regularly reminded of their weight and what overindulging can do to them, they might establish an unhealthy mindset towards food. So make certain to focus on other things, especially areas of life which are not demanding and which your child delights in.

© Waller Jamison 2006

Posted by admin at 21 December 2013

Category: Diet

By Jillita Horton

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Karate and other martial arts can fight childhood obesity, without embarrassment or other sticky concerns that parents of obese kids might have about their obese child playing sports amongst thinner kids. This is because martial arts lessons focus on individual development, rather than integration with a team. Further, if your overweight child has balance issues or lacks coordination,karate lessons and other martial arts lessons are ideal.

If your obese child lacks coordination, gets winded quickly, and can’t throw or catch a ball, this DOES NOT MEAN HE OR SHE CAN’T THROW A KICK !! It also doesn’t mean a fat child can’t perform board breaking skills or choreographed martial arts techniques in a pattern. However, let’s suppose your obese child is really having a tough time learning karate kicking basics.

This isn’t unique. Many thinner kids struggle at first. Even adults, including thinner ones, struggle. This is normal. This is why there are karate SCHOOLS. Children cannot learn karate kicks and upper body techniques without instruction.

At any given time in a given martial arts class, the students vary in age and abilities. Even a “black belt class” consists of varying abilities, since some students may have been taking karate lessons for only three years (new black belts), while others have been training for 10 or 15 years.

Classes are often divided into beginning, intermediate and advanced. Beginning students usually consist of just white and yellow belts (and sometimes a third ranking, orange belt), and there is quite a range of abilities. Sometimes there are rankings within each belt color. For instance, to get to green belt, a yellow belt (or orange) must first acquire three stripes on his or her belt.

Thus, if your child struggles at first, he will NOT stand out. An intermediate class might consist of green and blue belts — and again, a range of abilities. So if your obese child is struggling, nobody will really notice, because it has no impact on them.

On the other hand, if your child strikes out at bat, the whole team will feel this, because baseball is a team sport. Though swimming, running and tennis are individual sports, a fat child might feel very uncomfortable participating in these specific motions.

However, a heavy body can actually excel in martial arts. Martial arts isn’t just about jumping five feet in the air like Bruce Lee. A fat child can excel in “kumite,” or sparring competitions. Kumite is Japanese for point fighting. “Fighting” in this sense refers to competition, not a brawl, similar to the way “fighting” is used in a running race: “The lead runners are fighting it out to the finish line.” So don’t let the term point fighting fool you; it is not a brawl-type of fight. It’s more like playing tag within a very confined space.

Some martial arts schools offer board breaking lessons, and sometimes, tournaments have board breaking competitions. Obese kids can excel here as well. An obese child can also perform well in weaponry, and something called “kata” or forms: choreographed movements against an imaginary opponent.

Martial arts include judo (grappling and throwing), jiu-jitsu and hapkido (joint manipulation), and aikido (using opponent’s force against the opponent). Lastly, obese kids can learn to be very effective with self-defense skills.

The result of consistent martial arts lessons will be a lot of fat lost in the process, while having a lot of fun.

Note: Though the obese child can develop much self-confidence by competing in martial arts tournaments, I do not recommend signing your obese (or thinner) child up for any martial arts school that requires kids to attend every tournament it goes to. You want a school that places emphasis on self-defense first, and then encourages tournament competition.

Posted by admin at 22 November 2013

Category: Diet

tv_and_sedentary_pastimes

The Small Screen Looms Large in the Obesity Epidemic

By Harvard School of Public Health

Television (TV) watching is the favorite pastime in the U.S., and it’s become the favorite in many other parts of the world, too. After work and sleep, TV viewing is the most commonly reported activity in the U.S., taking up just over half of all leisure time. Similarly, in Australia, people spend about half of their free time watching TV, and across several countries in Europe, television takes up about 40 percent of people’s leisure time. In the U.S., people average about five hours of TV time each day, and in a few European countries, TV time rivals or exceeds that of the U.S.

Television is still the most widely-viewed screen worldwide, but these TV habits are part of a larger trend: Globally, people are spending more time sitting at work and at home, and there’s mounting evidence that this “sit time” is a major contributor to the obesity epidemic. Sedentary activities—not only TV watching, but also working at desk jobs, using computers, playing video games, driving cars, and the like—burn few calories and may replace more active pursuits. Increasingly, though, there’s evidence that watching TV—and, especially, watching junk food ads on TV—promotes obesity by changing mainly what and how much people eat, less so by changing how much they move.

Research conducted at Harvard first linked TV watching to obesity more than 25 years ago. Since then, extensive research has confirmed the link between TV viewing and obesity in children and adults, in countries around the world. And there’s good evidence that cutting back on TV time can help with weight control—part of the reason why many organizations recommend that children and teens limit TV/media time to no more than two hours per day. This article briefly outlines the research on how TV viewing and other sedentary activities contribute to obesity risk, and why reducing screen time and sedentary time are important targets for obesity prevention.

TV VIEWING AND CHILDHOOD OBESITY

Studies that follow children over long periods of time have consistently found that the more TV children watch, the more likely they are to gain excess weight. Children who have TV sets in their bedrooms are also more likely to gain excess weight than children who don’t.  And there’s evidence that early TV habits may have long-lasting effects: Two studies that followed children from birth found that TV viewing in childhood predicts obesity risk well into adulthood and mid-life.

Several trials designed to reduce children’s TV use have found improvements in body mass index (BMI), body fat, and other obesity-related measures. Based on this evidence, the U.S. Task Force on Community Preventive Services recommends that communities roll out behavior-change programs aimed at curbing screen time, since there’s “sufficient evidence” that such programs do help reduce screen time and improve weight.

Some of these successful TV-reduction trials have been delivered through the schools: The Planet Health trial, for example, used middle school classroom lessons to encourage less TV viewing, more activity, and improvements in diet; compared to the control group, students assigned to receive the lessons cut back on their TV time, and had lower rates of obesity in girls. Another trial found that third- and fourth-graders who received an 18-lesson “TV turnoff” curriculum cut back on TV time and on meals eaten while watching TV, compared with children in the control group, and they had a relative decrease in BMI and other measures of body fatness. TV “allowance” devices, which restrict TV watching to a set number of hours per week, may help limit children’s screen time, and in turn, help with weight control.

 

Posted by admin at 4 November 2013

Category: Diet

obesity

By The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

The problem of childhood obesity in the United States has grown considerably in recent years. Between 16 and 33 percent of children and adolescents are obese. Obesity is among the easiest medical conditions to recognize but most difficult to treat. Unhealthy weight gain due to poor diet and lack of exercise is responsible for over 300,000 deaths each year. The annual cost to society for obesity is estimated at nearly $100 billion. Overweight children are much more likely to become overweight adults unless they adopt and maintain healthier patterns of eating and exercise.

What is obesity?
A few extra pounds does not suggest obesity. However they may indicate a tendency to gain weight easily and a need for changes in diet and/or exercise. Generally, a child is not considered obese until the weight is at least 10 percent higher than what is recommended for their height and body type. Obesity most commonly begins between the ages of 5 and 6, or during adolescence. Studies have shown that a child who is obese between the ages of 10 and 13 has an 80 percent chance of becoming an obese adult.

What causes obesity?
The causes of obesity are complex and include genetic, biological, behavioral and cultural factors. Obesity occurs when a person eats more calories than the body burns up. If one parent is obese, there is a 50 percent chance that their children will also be obese. However, when both parents are obese, their children have an 80 percent chance of being obese. Although certain medical disorders can cause obesity, less than 1 percent of all obesity is caused by physical problems. Obesity in childhood and adolescence can be related to:

  • poor eating habits
  • overeating or binging
  • lack of exercise (i.e., couch potato kids)
  • family history of obesity
  • medical illnesses (endocrine, neurological problems)
  • medications (steroids, some psychiatric medications)
  • stressful life events or changes (separations, divorcemoves, deaths, abuse)
  • family and peer problems
  • low self-esteem
  • depression or other emotional problems

What are risks and complications of obesity?
There are many risks and complications with obesity. Physical consequences include:

  • increased risk of heart disease
  • high blood pressure
  • diabetes
  • breathing problems
  • trouble sleeping

Child and adolescent obesity is also associated with increased risk of emotional problems. Teens with weight problems tend to have much lower self-esteem and be less popular with their peers. Depressionanxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder can also occur.

How can obesity be managed and treated?
Obese children need a thorough medical evaluation by a pediatrician or family physician to consider the possibility of a physical cause. In the absence of a physical disorder, the only way to lose weight is to reduce the number of calories being eaten and to increase the level of physical activity. Lasting weight loss can only occur when there is self-motivation. Since obesity often affects more than one family member, making healthy eating and regular exercise a family activity can improve the chances of successful weight control for the child or adolescent.

Ways to manage obesity in children and adolescents include:

  • start a weight-management program
  • change eating habits (eat slowly, develop a routine)
  • plan meals and make better food selections (eat less fatty foods, avoid junk and fast foods)
  • control portions and consume less calories
  • increase physical activity (especially walking) and have a more active lifestyle
  • know what your child eats at school
  • eat meals as a family instead of while watching television or at the computer
  • do not use food as a reward
  • limit snacking
  • attend a support group (e.g.,Overeaters Anonymous)

Obesity frequently becomes a lifelong issue. The reason most obese adolescents gain back their lost pounds is that they tend to go back to their old habits of eating and exercising. An obese adolescent must therefore learn to eat and enjoy healthy foods in moderate amounts and to exercise regularly to maintain a desired weight. Parents of an obese child can improve their child’s self esteem by emphasizing their strengths and positive qualities rather than just focusing on their weight problem.

When a child or adolescent with obesity also has emotional problems, a child and adolescent psychiatrist can work with the child’s family physician to develop a comprehensive treatment plan. Such a plan would include reasonable weight loss goals, dietary and physical activity management, behavior modification, and family involvement.

Posted by admin at 9 March 2013

Category: Diet

by Web MD

Up to one out of every five children in the U. S. is overweight or obese, and this number is continuing to rise. Children have fewer weight-related health and medical problems than adults. However, overweight children are at high risk of becoming overweight adolescents and adults, placing them at risk of developing chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes later in life. They are also more prone to develop stress, sadness, and low self-esteem.

What Causes Obesity in Children?

Children become overweight and obese for a variety of reasons. The most common causes are genetic factors, lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of these factors. Only in rare cases is being overweight caused by a medical condition such as a hormonal problem. A physical exam and some blood tests can rule out the possibility of a medical condition as the cause for obesity.

Although weight problems run in families, not all children with a family history of obesity will be overweight. Children whose parents or brothers or sisters are overweight may be at an increased risk of becoming overweight themselves, but this can be linked to shared family behaviors such as eating and activity habits.

A child’s total diet and activity level play an important role in determining a child’s weight. Today, many children spend a lot time being inactive. For example, the average child spends approximately four hours each day watching television. As computers and video games become increasingly popular, the number of hours of inactivity may increase.

What Diseases Are Obese Children at Risk For?

Obese children are at risk for a number of conditions, including:
High cholesterol
High blood pressure
Early heart disease
Diabetes
Bone problems
Skin conditions such as heat rash, fungal infections, and acne

How Do I Know if My Child Is Overweight?

The best person to determine whether or not your child is overweight is your child’s doctor. In determining whether or not your child is overweight, the doctor will measure your child’s weight and height and compute his ”BMI,” or body mass index, to compare this value to standard values. The doctor will also consider your child’s age and growth patterns. Assessing obesity in children can be difficult, because children can grow in unpredictable spurts.

How Can I Help My Overweight Child?

If you have an overweight child, it is very important that you allow him or her to know that you will be supportive. Children’s feelings about themselves often are based on their parents’ feelings about them, and if you accept your children at any weight, they will be more likely to feel good about themselves. It is also important to talk to your children about their weight, allowing them to share their concerns with you.

It is not recommended that parents set children apart because of their weight. Instead, parents should focus on gradually changing their family’s physical activity and eating habits. By involving the entire family, everyone is taught healthful habits and the overweight child does not feel singled out.

How Can I Involve My Family in Healthful Habits?

There are many ways to involve the entire family in healthy habits, but increasing the family’s physical activity is especially important. Some ways to accomplish this include:

  • Lead by example. If your children see that you are physically active and having fun, they are more likely to be active and stay active for the rest of their lives.
  • Plan family activities that provide everyone with exercise, like kickboxing, walking, biking, or swimming.
  • Be sensitive to your child’s needs. Overweight children may feel uncomfortable about participating in certain activities. It is important to help your child find physical activities that they enjoy and that aren’t embarrassing or too difficult.
  • Make an effort to reduce the amount of time you and your family spend in sedentary activities, such as watching TV or playing video games.

Whatever approach parents choose to take regarding an overweight child, the purpose is not to make physical activity and following a healthy diet a chore, but to make the most of the opportunities you and your family have to be active and healthy.

Posted by admin at 25 February 2013

Category: Diet

By: Jennifer Flaten

The dangers of childhood obesity are far deeper and more serious than teasing on the schoolyard. Child obesity creates short-term health risks and leaves kids vulnerable to health risks as adults. In the worst scenario, obese children develop diseases that last for the rest of their lives.

A Growing Problem
In a study involving 14 industrialized countries, children from the United States were the most likely to be overweight. The figures showed that 12.6% of all 13-year-old boys in the United States are overweight, as are 10.8% of 13-year-old girls.

It doesn’t get better as kids get older: 13.9% of 15-year-old boys and 15.1% of 15-year-old girls are overweight. Research has also shown that obesity is not something that kids grow out of; obese children have a 70% chance of becoming obese adults.

Serious Health Risks
Many problems now faced by obese children were once considered illnesses that only occur adults. They include:
Heart disease
Type II diabetes
Joint issues
High cholesterol
Breathing problems
Sleep Apnea
Liver problems

The Psychological Toll
Obesity doesn’t just affect physical health. It can often affect emotional health. Obese children are often teased or shunned by their peers. This can lead to several emotional issues:
Low self-esteem
Depression
Lack of confidence, or false confidence
Bullying
Poor school performance

Treating Obesity
If you suspect that your child is obese, take him to your health care professional for a physical examination. If the doctor determines that your child is obese, there are steps you can take to help your child overcome obesity.

The first step is to eliminate unhealthy eating. A diet that is full of empty calories and fast food is the number-one contributor to pediatric obesity. Work with your child to control portion sizes, and fill her diet with healthy fruits and vegetables.

The next step is to increase physical activity. Elementary school children should get 150 minutes of physical exercise a week. The amount increases to 225 minutes for older children. If outdoor exercise is not possible, then have your child enroll in a team sport or join a gym. Both are excellent ways to get the required amount of physical activity.

Posted by admin at 29 January 2013

Category: Diet

Childhood obesity is an epidemic…but some Long Island schools are fighting it

By Elizabeth Siris Winchester

Adrianne Goldenbaum, lunch director of the West Babylon School District for the past 30 years, witnesses the poor eating habits of many Long Island children in school cafeterias daily. She fears she may even have unintentionally contributed to them.

“When I first started in food service everything was made from scratch—Salisbury steak, mashed potatoes, even the rolls,” Goldenbaum explains. “Then, all of a sudden, it became fast food and everything was fried and the caloric intake of meals was much higher.”

Goldenbaum observes, too, that as kids consume more calories, they appear to exercise less. “A lot of the kids these days don’t go out and move. They are consuming these huge amounts of calories and not burning them off,” she says. “Life is just different than when I was growing up and we were out all day playing until dinner time.”

A high caloric diet paired with a sedentary lifestyle is a recipe for excessive weight gain, and a major reason for the current childhood obesity epidemic in the United States. Genetics also comes into play. The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry states that children with one obese parent have a 50 percent chance of becoming obese; if both parents are obese, the risk jumps to 80 percent. Certain medications, stress and illness may also be to blame.

No matter what causes childhood obesity, Goldenbaum is correct in observing it rise throughout her career. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), since 1980 the number of American children who are obese more than doubled for ages 2 to 5, almost tripled for ages 6 to 11, and more than tripled for ages 12 to 19. Today, about one out of three children and teenagers in the U.S. is overweight or obese.

Measuring Obesity And Its Costs

Obesity is defined as an excess percentage of body fat. In adults and children over the age of 2, obesity is measured by the body mass index (BMI). The BMI is calculated using a person’s weight in relation to his or her height. For children and adolescents, BMI measurements are plotted on charts for age and gender, for percentile rankings. Those with a BMI more than the 85th percentile but less than the 95th percentile are considered overweight; those above the 95th percentile are considered obese. (Calculate your child’s BMI.)

Pediatricians assess a child’s BMI on every well visit after the age of 2. Dr. John Sheehy, who has been in pediatric practice in Glen Cove since 1978, notes exceptions to BMI classifications. “If kids are very athletic they are going to have increased bone density and muscle mass, and in those kids the BMI might be higher,” says Sheehy. “I say, ‘Don’t look at your weight; look at your conditioning. Look at how your pants fit.’”

Exceptions aside, why do the skyrocketing childhood obesity rates have experts very concerned?

“Doctors have been finding cases of what used to be ‘adult’ diseases [such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and conditions including high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol] in overweight teenagers and children as young as age 6,” explains Dr. Joanna Dolgoff, a pediatrician who began specializing in treating childhood obesity in February of 2008, when she started Roslyn-based Dr. Dolgoff’s Weigh: Child and Adolescent Weight Management Program. “New research indicates that childhood obesity itself may shorten one’s life span, even if that person is not obese as an adult.”

While many obesity-related complications may only be apparent to experts, parents may be able to observe some associated problems at home. These conditions include asthma and other breathing problems, troubled sleep, joint pain, depression and anxiety. Studies have shown that overweight and obese children are more likely to be victims of bullying and peer discrimination.

As if a rise in obesity-related illnesses in young people today is not damaging enough to society and future generations, the cost of treating them is. The CDC reports that from 1997 to 1999, hospital costs each year related to treating obesity in children and adolescents were $127 million, while from 1979 to 1981 they were $35 million.

“The average U.S. taxpayer pays $175 per year to finance obesity,” said Eric Finkelstein, Ph.D., at the National Conference on Childhood Obesity in June. “Obesity increases the nation’s health care bill by more than $90 billion per year.”

Fighting The Fat

Obesity has emerged as a leading health hazard in the U.S., and government and school officials, doctors, parents and other community members are working to reduce the growing problem. In New York State, where almost 60 percent of adult residents are overweight or obese (in Nassau County, it’s 52 percent, and Suffolk, 57 percent), U.S. Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY) has made fighting childhood obesity a top priority.

“The most effective way to address obesity is to provide healthier food and exercise opportunities for our children,” the senator said. “We need to be taking real steps to give parents, schools and communities the resources they need to give our children access to fresh fruits and vegetables.”

This past July, Gillibrand introduced legislation that would prohibit public school cafeterias from serving trans fats, and help educate parents about the dangers of overloading on foods that are high in fat from hydrogenated oils. New York City public schools have been successful in their quest to do so ever since the city’s trans fat ban in restaurants began in July 2007. Gillibrand also plans to work to get schools to cut back on the amount of junk food they serve.

But meals that include fresh fruits and vegetables and top-quality meats come at a higher price than the ones that many school districts are currently serving. The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act, which is scheduled to expire on Sept. 30 (at press time, it was anticipated that Congress would extend this deadline until later this fall), determines how much money the federal government provides to schools for reimbursable meal programs. One such initiative is the National School Lunch Program, which gives low-cost or free lunches to students who qualify for them. Gillibrand would like to increase the reimbursements for the lunches by 70 cents per meal, in hopes that by doing so, schools will be able to improve the meals’ nutritional value.

Posted by admin at 23 January 2013

Category: Diet

New York State

Between 2003 and 2007, the prevalence of obesity in New York City increased from 20% to 22%. Obesity was highest and increased the most among people living in low-income neighborhoods. Differences in obesity existed between neighborhoods with different levels of access to physical activity opportunities and food amenities. Reference: Black JL, Macinko J. The changing distribution of and determinants of obesity in neighborhoods of New York City, 2003-2007. Am J Epidemiol.Advance Acces published on February 19, 2010. doi:10.1093/aje/kwp458
A 2003 survey of kindergarten through fifth grade students in New York City revealed that 24% were obese, compared to 19% of second through fifth grade students in 1990. References: Melnik TA, Rhoades SJ, Wales KR, Cowell C, Wolfe WS. Overweight school children in New York City: prevalence estimates and characteristics. Int.J Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(1):7-13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448480/ Thorpe LE, List DG, Marx T, May L, Helgerson SD, Frieden TR. Childhood obesity in New York City elementary school students. Am.J Public Health. 2004;94(9):1496-1500.
Based on the 2004 cycle of the Oral Health, Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey of third graders in upstate New York, 21% were obese. In a 1987 survey, 13% of second and fifth graders were obese. References: Wolfe WS, Campbell CC, Frongillo EA, Jr., Haas JD, Melnik TA. Overweight schoolchildren in New York State: prevalence and characteristics (PDF, 1.6MB, 7pg.). Am.J Public Health. 1994;84(5):807-813.
Obesity prevalence among 2-5 year olds enrolled in WIC in NYS increased from 12% in 1989 to 16% in 2004. Reference: Edmunds LS, Woelfel ML, Dennison BA, Stratton H, Pruzek RM, Abusabha R. Overweight Trends among Children Enrolled in the New York State Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2006;106(1):113-117.
Between 2003 and 2008 the obesity prevalence among 2-5 year-olds enrolled in WIC in NYS decreased from 17% to 15%. However, childhood obesity remains a serious public health problem. Reference: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children – United State, 1998-2008. MMWR 2009 July 24;58(28):769-73.

US

Obesity among U.S. children and adolescents 2 to 19 years of age has tripled over the past two decades. CDC’s NHANES Surveys (1976-1980 and 2003-2006). References: Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. children and adolescents, 1999–2000. JAMA 2002;288:1728–1732. Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA 2004;291:2847–2850. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High Body Mass Index for Age Among US Children and Adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA 2008;299:2401–2405
Obesity among U.S. children and adolescents 2 to 19 years of age is more prevalent among African Americans (21%) and Mexican Americans (21%) than among Non-Hispanic Whites (15%). Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. High Body Mass Index for Age Among US Children and Adolescents, 2003–2006. JAMA 2008;299:2401–2405.
Among US children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in 2008, American Indian children and Hispanic children had the highest prevalence of obesity (20% and 18%, respectively), followed by Whites (13%) and Blacks (12%). Reference: CDC Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance Survey, 2008.